12 December 2021 by Published in: Jared Smith, Bible Reading No comments yet

A Transcript Of The Video Study

In our previous study, we considered the significance of the covenants God made with Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and how they differ from the Covenants of Works and Grace. In this study, I would like to examine the same topic, but with reference to the covenant God made with Moses, otherwise known as the Mosaic Covenant. We read about this covenant in the book of Exodus, when God organized the Jewish people into a nation. Thereafter, the Mosaic Covenant assumes a prominent position in the Old and New Testament scriptures, for it outlines the parameters around which the Jewish people as a nation were in relationship to God. Remember, the Jewish race began around the year 2000 BC, when Abraham was born. Around 80 years later, God made a covenant with Abraham which included the promise that He would make the Jewish race into a great nation. This covenant and promise was renewed with Abraham’s son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. Finally, in the year 1491 BC, God fulfilled His promise by organizing the Jewish people into a nation under the leadership of Moses. It was at that time God established a covenant with Moses, on behalf of the children of Israel. It would be under the authority of this covenant that the children of Israel as a nation would be in relationship to God. All that God required of the Jewish people as a nation was embodied in the terms and promises of the Mosaic Covenant. The nation of Israel existed in one form or another for just over 1,500 years—from its commencement in 1491 BC with Moses, to its termination in AD 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem. However, as pointed out in a previous study, rather than the nation coming to an abrupt end, it slowly faded away over a 40 year period—between AD 26 with the ministry of John the Baptist and AD 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem. It was during this transition period of the nation’s termination, that the Mosaic Covenant was made null and void. Keep in mind, many of the New Testament letters were written during this transition period. It is within this context the Apostle Paul argued time and again that the Mosaic Covenant (Law) had come to an end, having no authority over Jews or Gentiles.

Now, having given this overview of the Mosaic Covenant, I wish to highlight the differences between the Covenant of Works, the Covenant of Grace and the Mosaic Covenant.

First, the Covenant of Works was established by God in the garden of Eden in 4004 BC; the Covenant of Grace was established by God before the foundation of the world (from eternity); the Mosaic Covenant was established by God on Mount Sinai in 1491 BC.

Second, the Covenant of Works was established by God with Adam; the Covenant of Grace was established by God the Father with the Son and the Spirit; the Mosaic Covenant was established by God with Moses.

Third, the Covenant of Works was established by God with Adam on behalf of the entire human race; the Covenant of Grace was established by God the Father with the Son and the Spirit on behalf of His elect people; the Mosaic Covenant was established by God with Moses on behalf of the Jewish people as a nation.

Fourth, the Covenant of Works is a perpetual and spiritual covenant under which all unregenerate sinners (Jews and Gentiles) are in relationship to God; the Covenant of Grace is a perpetual and spiritual covenant under which all regenerate sinners (Jews and Gentiles) are in relationship with God; the Mosaic Covenant was a temporary and national covenant under which all Jewish people as a nation were in relationship to God.

Fifth, in the world to come, God will hold all unregenerate sinners (Jews and Gentiles) accountable under the authority of the Covenant of Works; in the world to come, God will hold all regenerate sinners (Jews and Gentiles) accountable under the authority of the Covenant of Grace; in the world to come, God will not hold anyone (Jews or Gentiles) accountable to Him under the authority of the Mosaic Covenant—the Jewish people as a nation were held accountable by God as they lived on this earth during that time in history.

Sixth, every covenant is governed by a law.

The governing law for the Covenant of Works is the Heart Law; the governing law for the Covenant of Grace is the Gospel Law; and the governing law for the Mosaic Covenant was the Mosaic Law.

With reference to the Heart Law under the Covenant of Works, there is a twofold law inscribed upon the soul—(1) to love the Lord God with all one’s heart, and with all one’s soul and with all one’s mind; and (2) to love one’s neighbor as one’s self.

Under the Covenant of Grace, the Gospel Law is the regenerate sinner’s spiritual union with Christ—the life and graces of Christ flow into one’s soul by virtue of this spiritual union, effectuated by the regenerating power of the Holy Spirit.

Under the Mosaic Covenant, the Law of Moses is a threefold law ordained by God for the Jewish people as a nation.

(1) As the Jewish people were to be a holy nation, God gave to them a Moral Law. The Moral Law came in the form of Ten Commandments.

(2) As the Jewish people were to be a righteous nation, God gave to them a Civil Law. The Civil Law came in the form of judicial precepts and prohibitions designed to govern the social affairs of the people. This included strict laws which regulated various crimes such as theft, bearing false witness, disobedience to parents, adultery, etc.

(3) As the Jewish people were to be a religious nation, God gave to them a Ceremonial Law. The Ceremonial Law came in the form of precepts and prohibitions designed to govern the religious affairs of the people. This included strict laws which regulated various ordinances connected with the tabernacle and temple, with its furnishings, priesthood, sacrifices, altars, feasts, etc.

Now, it must be understood, the Mosaic Law is inclusive of all three branches. I want to emphasize this point, because there are many today who separate the Ten Commandments from the other two branches of the Mosaic Law, appropriating them for proselyting and discipleship purposes. Those who appropriate the Ten Commandments for proselyting purposes will use them as a tool to persuade unregenerate sinners to make a decision for Jesus. This, of course, is a dreadful abuse of the Ten Commandments, a perversion of the gospel and manipulation of unregenerate sinners. On the other hand, those who appropriate the Ten Commandments for discipleship purposes assert they are the rule of conduct for the believer’s life, and are to be used as a ruler by which the regenerate sinner is to measure the level of his/her holiness. Again, this is a dreadful abuse of the Ten Commandments, a perversion of the gospel and a tyrannical lording over the soul’s of regenerate sinners. The Ten Commandments were never designed by God to be used for proselyting and discipleship purposes.

So, allow me to summarize what I have tried to explain in this study:

The Ten Commandments belong to one of three branches of the Mosaic Law. These branches cannot be separated from each other. If a person is under one of the branches of this law, then he/she is under the other two branches. Conversely, if a person is exonerated from one of the branches of this law, then he/she is exonerated from the other two branches.

I have also tried to show you that the Mosaic Law belongs to the Mosaic Covenant, which was designed for and given to the Jewish people as a nation. It was for a particular race of people during a particular time in history, which is no longer operational today. After Christ came into the world and accomplished the work of redemption for the elect, the Jewish nation ceased to exist and the Mosaic Covenant, with its law, was made null and void.

I have also tried to show you that the Mosaic Covenant is an entirely separate covenant from the Covenant of Works and the Covenant of Grace. I believe a failure to recognize this point is the leading cause for much of the confusion which surrounds this issue of the Ten Commandments. Those who believe the Ten Commandments are in operation today and applicable to unregenerate or regenerate sinners, are making the mistake of conflating the Mosaic Covenant with either the Covenant of Works or the Covenant of Grace. You see, rather than viewing unregenerate sinners as accountable to God according to the Heart Law under the authority of the Covenant of Works, they are mismatching the covenants viewing unregenerate sinners as accountable to God according to the Ten Commandments under the Mosaic Covenant. Likewise, rather than viewing regenerate sinners as accountable to God according to the Gospel Law under the authority of the Covenant of Grace, they are mismatching the covenants viewing regenerate sinners as accountable to God according to the Ten Commandments under the Mosaic Covenant.

My dear friends, if you want to avoid confusion, and find the sweetest joy and derive the greatest benefit when reading through the books of the Bible, then you will do well to keep before you this distinction between these three covenants.

Jared Smith



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