A meeting or assembly of ecclesiastical persons to consult on matters of religion. Of these there are four kinds, viz. 1. General, where bishops, &c. meet from all nations. These were first called by the emperors; afterwards by Christian princes; till in later ages, the pope usurped to himself the greatest share in this business, and by his legates presided in them when called.–2. National, where those of one nation only come together to determine any point of doctrine or discipline. The first of this sort which we read of in England was that of Herudford, or Hertford, in 673; and the last was that held by Cardinal Pole, in 1555.–3. Provincial, where those only of one province meet, now called the convocation.–4. Diocesan, where those of but one diocess meet, to enforce canons made by general councils, or national and provincial synods, and to consult and agree upon rules of discipline for themselves. those were not wholly laid aside, till by the act of submission, 25 Hen. VIII. c. 19. it was made unlawful for any synod to meet, but by royal authority.
Charles Buck (1771-1815) was an English Independent minister, best known for the publication of his “Theological Dictionary”. According to the “Dictionary of National Biography”, a Particular Baptist minister named John C. Ryland (1723-1792) assisted Buck by writing many of the articles for the aforementioned publication. One may conclude, based not only Buck’s admiration for his friend Ryland, but also on the entries in his Theological Dictionary, that he stood head and shoulders with the High-Calvinists of his day.